Transgender, or simply trans, is a term for people whose gender does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. This may refer to trans-women, trans-men and humans of non-binary genders.
But what even is the difference between sex and gender?
It is actually quite simple, sex refers to the genitals a person has, so a male human for example, has a Penis, male reproductive parts and other gender markings, a female person has a vagina, breasts, and female reproductive parts.
Gender refers to the persons actual gender, for example male or female, but also non-binary genders, like agender, bigender, non-binary, demi-girl, demi-boy and many more.
Gender Dysphoria is the feeling of incongruency between the gender and sex of a body. This is a painful feeling that is often a sign of being trans. A trans person does not need to have gender dysphoria to be trans!
That may be for example a woman „stuck“ in the body of a man, or the other way around. It may of course also be a non-binary person in a body that doesn’t match their identity. This may for example be a bigender person born female.
A note on pronouns: There is a political discussion, especially in the US and Great Britain, whether they/them pronouns should be used for a single person. This discussion is in my opinion rather useless, as ‚they‘ has been used for a single person, whose gender is unspecified for a long time, so there is no reason not to use. There is a similar argument to be made for they/them pronouns for one, specified, person. A person may choose to use they/them pronouns for themself when they do not feel properly represented by or want to use, they/them pronouns in addition to, she/her or he/him pronouns. A person may also prefer to use any pronouns or no pronouns at all. In the second variant, a person may choose to simply use their name instead of any pronouns. (Note to any German speaking readers: this is the most commonly used variant for non-binary people who do prefer not to use ‚er‘ or ’sie‘).
There is no reason to deny a person their chosen pronouns. This is a case of basic human respect and decency.
Like any human, a trans person should be treated with the respect they deserve and be referred to as the gender they identify as. As a discriminated group of people, trans people and their rights should be especially protected, as they are in more danger than a cis (=non trans) person. For example, trans people are more likely, even more than other LGBTQ+ people, to have attempted suicide in their lifetime. 41.8% to be exact. This is an absurdly high number. This is in large part because of the discrimination they receive and their gender dysphoria. Both of these things should be easy to treat, there is though, still a lot of discrimination against trans people, often even by their own families. Many trans children and teenagers have to repress their gender identity due to threats by their parents. A lot of them then go on to attempt suicide. As such the support of family is vital.
The main way to alleviate gender dysphoria in a trans person is to transition to the gender that matches their identity. They do not need to transition to be trans though!
Transition may for example consist of taking hormones, getting gender affirming surgeries, voice training and legal sex change.